Definite-distance Type Impedance Relay
Fig shows the schematic arrangement of a definite-distance type impedance relay. It consists of a pivoted beam F and two electromagnets energized respectively by a current and voltage transformer in the protected circuit. The armatures of the two electromagnets are mechanically coupled to the beam on the opposite sides of the fulcrum. The beam is provided with a bridging piece for the trip contacts. The relay is so designed that the torques produced by the two electromagnets are in the opposite direction.
Under normal operating conditions, the pull due to the voltage element is greater than that of the current element. Therefore, the relay contacts remain open. However, when a fault occurs in the protected zone, the applied voltage to the relay decreases whereas the current increases. The ratio of voltage to current (i.e. impedance) falls below the pre-determined value. Therefore, the pull of the current element will exceed that due to the voltage element and this causes the beam to tilt in a direction to close the trip contacts.
where I is the fault current and V is the voltage at the sub-station, Because the current I corresponds to normal load
The value of the constants k1 and k2 depends upon the ampere-turns of the two electromagnets. By providing tappings on the coils, the setting value of the relay can be changed.